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In the early history of unmanned aviation, the distinction between a drone and guided missile was not always well defined. The World War One-era Kettering Bug, regarded to be one of the first drones, was designed to deliver an explosive charge by crashing into its targets, more like a rocket than the reconnaissance and strike aircraft that we associate with the word “drone” today. But now an emerging field of unmanned aircraft, called loitering munitions, once again blurs the line between drone and missile.
A loitering munition is a type of unmanned aerial vehicle designed to engage beyond line-of-sight ground targets with an explosive warhead. Loitering munitions are often portable and many are meant to provide ground units such as infantry with a guided precision munition. They are equipped with high resolution electro-optical and infrared cameras that enable the targeter to locate, surveil, and guide the vehicle to the target. A defining characteristic of loitering munitions is the ability to “loiter” in the air for an extended period of time before striking, giving the targeter time to decide when and what to strike.
Early loitering munitions like the Israel Aerospace Industries Harpy, which was unveiled in the early 1990s, were intended to be used against radar installations or mobile missile launchers. Today, many loitering munitions are marketed for infantry use because they offer ground forces greater precision than, for example, a mortar. Unlike other types of drones of equivalent size and weight, a loitering munition is not meant to be recovered after the mission is over. Once armed and airborne, loitering munitions—which are also known as “suicide drones”—are meant to detonate on impact.
A growing number of countries are acquiring their own loitering munitions, which offer a unique set of new capabilities compared to traditional alternatives such as rockets and mortars. This document provides an overview of loitering munitions currently in use or development, and examines some unanswered questions relating to the potential benefits and dangers of the proliferation of this technology.
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Wind erosion is a serious environmental problem attracting the attention of many across the globe. It is a common phenomenon occurring mostly in flat, bare areas; dry, sandy soils; or anywhere the soil is loose, dry, and finely granulated. Wind erosion damages land and natural vegetation by removing soil from one place and depositing it in another. It causes soil loss, dryness and deterioration of soil structure,
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. Suspended dust and dirt is inevitably deposited over everything. It blows on and inside homes, covers roads and highways, and smothers crops. Sediment transport and deposition are significant factors in the geological changes which occur on the land around us and over long periods of time are important in the soil formation process.
Soil movement is initiated as a result of wind forces exerted against the surface of the ground. For each specific soil type and surface condition there is a minimum velocity required to move soil particles. This is called the threshold velocity. Once this velocity is reached, the quantity of soil moved is dependent upon the particle size, the cloddiness of particles, and wind velocity itself.
Suspension , saltation , and surface creep are the three types of soil movement which occur during wind erosion. While soil can be blown away at virtually any height, the majority (over 93%) of soil movement takes place at or below one meter.
Suspension occurs when very fine dirt and dust particles are lifted into the wind. They can be thrown into the air through impact with other particles or by the wind itself. Once in the atmosphere, these particles can be carried very high and be transported over extremely long distances. Soil moved by suspension is the most spectacular and easiest to recognize of the three forms of movement.
Saltation - The major fraction of soil moved by the wind is through the process of saltation. In saltation, fine soil particles are lifted into the air by the wind and drift horizontally across the surface increasing in velocity as they go. Soil particles moved in this process of saltation can cause severe damage to the soil surface and vegetation. They travel approximately four times longer in distance than in height. When they strike the surface again they either rebound back into the air or knock other particles into the air.
Over the years I have written and talked a lot about mortification of sin. In that time I have received occasional questions about the topic. However, in recent months it seems that I have been asked about the subject with a bit more frequency. In fact, I’ve promised a few people that I would write a brief introduction to mortification. Since we are dealing with two older words, let’s call it a primer.
As I indicated, mortification is not a common word today. And if someone might use it in a sentence theyprobably are referring to being “mortified” by which they mean that they are embarrassed. When we talk about mortifying sin we are speaking about the original sense of the word. Mortification comes from the Latin mors (death) and facere (to do). In this sense it has to do with putting something to death. Perhaps more literally it is “to make dead.”
In general, sin is to be mortified. In particular, all of the lusts of the flesh that rage against who we as Christians are to be and what we are to do. A couple of Scriptures come to mind (note: the KJV of Romans 8 uses the word “mortify” for “put to death”).
“So then, brothers, we are debtors, not to the flesh, to live according to the flesh. For if you live according to the flesh you will die, but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live.” (
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“Put to death therefore what is earthly in you: sexual immorality, impurity, passion, evil desire, and covetousness, which is idolatry. On account of these the wrath of God is coming. In these you too once walked, when you were living in them. But now you must put them all away: anger, wrath, malice, slander, and obscene talk from your mouth.” (
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We are reminded in Scripture that the Holy Spirit is the means by which sin is to be put to death. John Owen, in
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on the mortification of sin, writes, “A man may easier see without eyes, speak without a tongue, than truly mortify one sin without the Spirit.” Therefore, it follows that the work of mortification is the work of the Holy Spirit in the Christian believer.
A lot of people ask, “But how do I mortify?” I want to quote John Owen here and interact with him a bit as I go because his writing can be a bit dense to some. But, it is so, so good.
To kill a man, or any other living thing, is to take away the principle of all his strength, vigor, and power, so that he cannot act or exert, or put forth any prop actions of his own.
The wait was more then worth it. I was scared out of my mind the entire time! My entire group ... read more had a great scare thanks to Bane!
I loved the Captive room that I went to last night. I went with a group of 5 people but ... read more joined with 2 other people. Even though we we're so close to getting out, I just loved the concept and the room being creepy. It was exciting
This was my first time doing an escape room, and while my group didn't escape, I had a great time! ... read more So glad I did this and am looking forward to doing another.
My friends and I did Captive last night we had a great time. This was hands down the best ... read more escape room that we have ever done. Bravo Bane very well thought out escape room we had a blast. We can't wait to come back to do the haunted house.
If you like a challenge, Bane escape is great. It was much harder than some of the rooms in the ... read more city we went to. We made it out with a minute left!
Staff really got a kick out of watching us struggle, but they provided a lot of help for our first ... read more escape room experience.
Awesome experience, we almost made it but were captured lol. I was super nervous a bit scared. A lot of ... read more laughs and serious faces. We tried �. Team work is a must. Bane hasn't let us down one bit. Thx for the experience...
Great entertainment great for a group of 8....did not escape needed 3 more locks on the last door �
Icombat Apocalypse World Tour was so much fun! I had heard from a few friends who experienced Icombat at other ... read more locations. So when I found out it was coming to Bane Haunted House I signed up and got tickets right away! I am a huge horror fan fanatic so I love events like this!
The timer on the tv screen really made you feel the pressure to get out in time. We didn’t make ... read more it out probably because we were panicked watching the clock!
Bane Escape has two rooms, one with a scarier theme(Captive), so we chose that room. We made it all the ... read more way to the last section very quickly, and then got stuck at the end. We WILL come back and escape this room!
This was by far one of the better "escape rooms" I have done. The theme was different from your normal ... read more zombie tied to a chain, or murder mystery in an apartment/bar/house theme that I have run into at a lot of the escapes I have done. Working together was very crucial for my group as is in most of these rooms. The puzzles were thought out and extensive.
We had an awesome time! Didn't quite know what to expect but it was so fun. We teamed ... read more up with another family that were absolutely great! We are ready to go back to check out another escape room.
Don’t feel bad for asking for clues!!! Without asking for help we definitely would not have gotten out! They allow ... read more you three clues, so use them wisely!
I’ve been to Bane before for the haunted house, but this was my first escape room experience. Bane’s haunted house ... read more is the best and you should expect no less from their escape rooms. Well thought out and fun for the whole group. I would recommend a group of about 6 people, as with more it could be crowded, but the extra people really helped to get us out in time.
Staff was polite and professional, helped us get set up and really helped the experience.
Definitely a challenge, but the managers gave us a few hints. Made it out with 3 minutes to spare!
This was our 6th Escape Room and I have to say it would be one of my top two. From ... read more the moment we walked through the door, it was a great experience. An added level of difficulty due to low lighting. You waste no time starting your escape. Just make sure you bring folks with you who communicate well and are decent problem solvers. Bring paper and pen. They give you an erasure board but we quickly ran out space. I'm not allowed to give too much away but the theme was pretty original and fun to solve. Teamwork is a definite must to get through this. Highly recommended. Go check it out and enjoy.
Went for the first time yesterday with a group of friends and we had a blast! :-) We set the ... read more record apparently for shortest time with no clues so that was awesome! I've done a few escapes at other places before but I have to say the clue coherency and multiple room aspect really wowed me with this place! Great job to the staff/room designers!
Never been to an escape room before, but friends dragged me out. The game was way more fun than I ... read more expected, and the managers seemed to really enjoy messing with us throughout the game. Would definitely recommend.
We were so close in maritime grave, good time. Definitely going back again.
I went to the zombie apocalypse this weekend and the whole production was incredible. Especially the zombie makeup!
Had an absolute blast this weekend, equipment felt so real, it completely took me by surprise. I can not wait ... read more until the next big event. I wish they had this type of game every weekend.
Me and my friends had went to a couple escape rooms over the summer, this one by far has been ... read more the best. It's requires a lot of team work and thinking skills. It wasn't easy nor was it hard it was a fun challenge for me and my friends, we really enjoyed it. The Bane Haunted House escape the room challenge was really thrilling and creepy it made me want to work faster to find my way out. Great Experience!
I loved it! Just wish they had more zombies! And it lastest for like 40 minutes which was awesome!
What a fun experience. We went to the zombie tour in Flemington a couple of months ago and were ... read more highly disappointed as there were about 10 zombies, other groups filtered in to ours so they were taking "our" zombies, and the entire thing took 15 minutes. We decided to give Bane a shot...so glad we did. Found the whole thing to be very well organized. They only let one group in at a time so we didn't encounter any one else the whole time, which was about 40 minutes. Plenty of zombies, lots of good scares, and an overall great time. Looking forward to checking out the haunted house this Fall.
This was def a great experience. It was fun for my 8 year old as well and my husband and ... read more I. Would def. recommend and would def come back. Only issue was it said special ops does Apocolypse Escape and World tour and wasnt sure we did both because it was one big giant maze.
Played zombie apocalypse for the first and it was amazing! We will be back!
Will definitely do it again. What a cool experience!
Decided to try this for the first time with my hubby for our anniversary. We had a great time we ... read more also had a great group of strangers working with us. Definitely will be trying these more often. Great job, had a blast.
This was an awesome experience... going to do it again!
Had an amazing time with my husband. Can't wait to go again with friends.
Awesome! We failed but had a great time! The decor was fantastic!
Had a good time with the hubby. It was a great challange, we've been to other escape rooms where ... read more the game itself was boring and didn't really make us think. The Captive room was a challenge but a good challenge. I think we went over our limit with the clues they gave us but overall, it was a good time. The rooms had a creepy scary feel about them. Everytime we asked for a clue, I jumped from the screams! Well done! We will definitely be back for your sub room!
Very fun family experience. Definitely not easy. Looking forward to going back to the murder room!
We have done a few escape rooms and we agreed this was best one so far! Very logical, but ... read more not easy. The unlimited clues help greatly, but we still failed on last part of room...not to give it away. Hard to find location in the back of the complex....don't give up...follow the yellow signs. Well worth it!
Was our first time, didn't know what to expect. My husband and I were the only two so it ... read more was hard but we did get 3 doors open. We are going back with a group so they can help.
Had a great time will definitely come back to do it again
I can't wait for them to finish making the next room already done both room failed both but it was ... read more fun each time .. best experience ever .. glad we all were a lil tipy made it ever funnier ... Lol hurry up and finish the next room we trying to make this something to do on a monthly trip .. my job wants to plan a trip over there also lol
had so much fun!! loved it!! definitely would recommend to try it out!
A wonderful experience. So much fun. A must try for everyone!!!
The captive escape room was fun! Not easy but not too hard either if you're really paying attention which ... read more I suggest! We escaped with 5mins left! Can't wait to come back to do maritime!
It was very challenging but extremely fun. Must do
The Ockupy team went to Bane Escape for a fun night out and team building, and we all had a ... read more great time! We didn't make it out but are excited to come back and try our luck with the other room!
Place was awesome...loved it...Challenging room but alot of fun